Universiteit Maastricht

The economics of disaser relief

Auteur(s): Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Faure, M.G.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Law and Policy, 37(3), 180-208.

Type: Artikel

Private liability and critical infrastructure

Auteur(s): Faure, M.G.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: European Journal of Risk Regulation, 6(2), 229-243.

Type: Artikel

Error correction testing in panels with common stochastic trends

Auteur(s): Gengenbach, C.; Urbain, J.R.Y.J.; Westerlund, J.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Journal of Applied Econometrics, , .

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
This paper develops panel data tests for the null hypothesis of no error correction in a model with common stochastic trends. The asymptotic distributions of the new test statistics are derived and simulation results are provided to suggest that they perform well in small samples.

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Neurofunctional signature of hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces

Auteur(s): Negro, E.; D'Agata, F.; Caroppo, P.; Coriasco, M.; Ferrio, F.; Celeghin, A.; Diano, M.; Rubino, E.; Gelder, B.M.L.F. de; Rainero, I.; Pinessi, L.; Tamietto, M.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: PLoS One, 10(7): e0129970.

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces is a rare selective disorder that consists of the disturbing and abnormal feeling of familiarity for unknown faces, while recognition of known faces is normal. In one such patient we investigated with a multimodal neuroimaging design the hitherto undescribed neural signature associated with hyperfamiliarity feelings. Behaviorally, signal detection methods revealed that the patient's discrimination sensitivity between familiar and unfamiliar faces was significantly lower than that of matched controls, and her response criterion for familiarity decisions was significantly more liberal. At the neural level, while morphometric analysis and single-photon emission CT (SPECT) showed the atrophy and hypofunctioning of the left temporal regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) revealed that hyperfamiliarity feelings were selectively associated to enhanced activity in the right medial and inferior temporal cortices. We therefore characterize the neurofunctional signature of hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces as related to the loss of coordinated activity between the complementary face processing functions of the left and right temporal lobes.

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Improving access to skilled facility-based delivery services: women's beliefs on facilitators and barriers to the utilisation of maternity waiting homes in rural Zambia

Auteur(s): Sialubanje, C.; Massar, K.; Pijl, M.S.G. van der; Kirch, E.M.; Hamer, D.H.; Ruiter, R.A.C.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Reproductive Health, 12(1), .

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
BACKGROUND: Maternity waiting homes (MWHs) are aimed at improving access to facility-based skilled delivery services in rural areas. This study explored women's experiences and beliefs concerning utilisation of MWHs in rural Zambia. Insight is needed into women's experiences and beliefs to provide starting points for the design of public health interventions that focus on promoting access to and utilisation of MWHs and skilled birth attendance services in rural Zambia. METHODS: We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age (15-45 years) from nine health centre catchment areas. A total of twenty-two in-depth interviews were conducted at a health care facility with a MWH and 10 were conducted at a health care facility without MWHs. Women's perspectives on MWHs, the decision-making process regarding the use of MWHs, and factors affecting utilisation of MWHs were explored. RESULTS: Most women appreciated the important role MWHs play in improving access to skilled birth attendance and improving maternal health outcomes. However several factors such as women's lack of decision-making autonomy, prevalent gender inequalities, low socioeconomic status and socio-cultural norms prevent them from utilising these services. Moreover, non availability of funds to buy the requirements for the baby and mother to use during labour at the clinic, concerns about a relative to remain at home and take care of the children and concerns about the poor state and lack of basic social and healthcare needs in the MWHs - such as adequate sleeping space, beddings, water and sanitary services, food and cooking facilities as well as failure by nurses and midwives to visit the mothers staying in the MWHs to ensure their safety prevent women from using MWHs. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight important targets for interventions and suggest a need to provide women with skills and resources to ensure decision-making autonomy and address the prevalent gender and cultural norms that debase their social status. Moreover, there is need to consider provision of basic social and healthcare needs such as adequate sleeping space, beddings, water and sanitary services, food and cooking facilities, and ensuring that nurses and midwives conduct regular visits to the mothers staying in the MWHs.

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Crossmodal deficit in dyslexic children: practice affects the neural timing of letter-speech sound integration

Auteur(s): Zaric, G.; Gonzalez, G. Fraga; Tijms, J.; Molen, M.W. van der; Blomert, L.; Bonte, M.L.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, .

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
A failure to build solid letter-speech sound associations may contribute to reading impairments in developmental dyslexia. Whether this reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds changes over time within individual children and how this relates to behavioral gains in reading skills remains unknown. In this research, we examined changes in event-related potential (ERP) measures of letter-speech sound integration over a 6-month period during which 9-year-old dyslexic readers (n = 17) followed a training in letter-speech sound coupling next to their regular reading curriculum. We presented the Dutch spoken vowels /a/ and /o/ as standard and deviant stimuli in one auditory and two audiovisual oddball conditions. In one audiovisual condition (AV0), the letter "a" was presented simultaneously with the vowels, while in the other (AV200) it was preceding vowel onset for 200 ms. Prior to the training (T1), dyslexic readers showed the expected pattern of typical auditory mismatch responses, together with the absence of letter-speech sound effects in a late negativity (LN) window. After the training (T2), our results showed earlier (and enhanced) crossmodal effects in the LN window. Most interestingly, earlier LN latency at T2 was significantly related to higher behavioral accuracy in letter-speech sound coupling. On a more general level, the timing of the earlier mismatch negativity (MMN) in the simultaneous condition (AV0) measured at T1, significantly related to reading fluency at both T1 and T2 as well as with reading gains. Our findings suggest that the reduced neural integration of letters and speech sounds in dyslexic children may show moderate improvement with reading instruction and training and that behavioral improvements relate especially to individual differences in the timing of this neural integration.

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Culture matters in successful curriculum change: an international study of the influence of national and organizational culture tested with multilevel structural equation modeling

Auteur(s): Jippes, M.; Driessen, E.W.; Broers, N.J.; Majoor, G.D.; Gijselaers, W.H.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Academic Medicine, 90(7), 921-929.

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
Purpose: National culture has been shown to play a role in curriculum change in medical schools, and business literature has described a similar influence of organizational culture on change processes in organizations. This study investigated the impact of both national and organizational culture on successful curriculum change in medical schools internationally. Method: The authors tested a literature-based conceptual model using multilevel structural equation modeling. For the operationalization of national and organizational culture, the authors used Hofstede’s dimensions of culture and Quinn and Spreitzer’s competing values framework, respectively. To operationalize successful curriculum change, the authors used two derivates: medical schools’ organizational readiness for curriculum change developed by Jippes and colleagues, and change-related behavior developed by Herscovitch and Meyer. The authors administered a questionnaire in 2012 measuring the described operationalizations to medical schools in the process of changing their curriculum. Results: Nine hundred ninety-one of 1,073 invited staff members from 131 of 345 medical schools in 56 of 80 countries completed the questionnaire. An initial poor fit of the model improved to a reasonable fit by two suggested modifications which seemed theoretically plausible. In sum, characteristics of national culture and organizational culture, such as a certain level of risk taking, flexible policies and procedures, and strong leadership, affected successful curriculum change. Conclusions: National and organizational culture influence readiness for change in medical schools. Therefore, medical schools considering curriculum reform should anticipate the potential impact of national and organizational culture.

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Effective research and innovation (R&I) policy in the EU-28: A causal and configurational analysis of political governance determinants

Auteur(s): Turkeli, S.; Kemp, R.P.M.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: UNU-MERIT Working Papers 023. Maastricht: UNU-MERIT.

Type: Rapport / Working paper

Samenvatting:
Effective research and innovation (R&I) policy depends on the extent to which ideas, interests and institutional mechanisms for policy making work together rather than work against each other. In a political governance model for effective R&I policy in the EU-28, the separate influence of inter-ministerial coordination, regulatory impact assessment extended to sustainability checks, parliamentary committee surveillance, media attention and societal consultation is investigated. Interaction effects are investigated in a set-theoretic analysis for the econometrically best-fit model. Our results show that the societal consultation, policy-informed opposition and sector-informed informal policy coordination are necessary but not sufficient to bring about effectiveness to R&I policy. Their influence on effectiveness of R&I policy depends on the combination with either media attention or Regulatory Impact Analysis (RIA) extended to sustainability checks. We reached these results with the help of ordered logit estimations and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analyses using 2011-2013 (SGI) data of Bertelsmann Stiftung and Lexis Nexis Academic.

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Does early-career underemployment impact future career success? A path dependency perspective

Auteur(s): Verbruggen, M.; Emmerik, I.H. van; Gils, A.E.J. van; Meng, C.M.; Grip, A. de

Jaar: 2015

Bron: GSBE research memorandum 023. Maastricht: GSBE.

Type: Rapport / Working paper

Samenvatting:
This study examines the impact of three types of underemployment, i.e. level underemployment, content underemployment and contingent employment, on subsequent objective (i.e. salary) and subjective career success (i.e. job satisfaction) using a 10-year longitudinal dataset with 335 Dutch university graduates. Thanks to our longitudinal design, we were able to examine the impact of preceding underemployment and the specific timing of the underemployment in one’s career, in that way explicitly addressing the role of time in career success research. We tested our hypotheses through multilevel analyses. Level and contingent underemployment, but not content underemployment, were found to have a negative impact on future pay; whereas content employment, but not level or contingent underemployment, were found to affect job satisfaction five years later. In addition, for one type of underemployment (i.e., level underemployment), also the timing of the underemployment turned out to matter, indicating that the signal that level underemployment sends to employers may differ depending on when in one’s career it happens. Taken together, these findings point to the importance of using a path-dependency perspective when trying to understand people’s career success.

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The effects of prize spread and noise in elimination tournaments: A natural field experiment

Auteur(s): Delfgaauw, J.; Dur, R.; Non, J.A.; Verbeke, W.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Journal of Labor Economics, 33(3), 521-569.

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
We conduct a natural field experiment in a retail chain to test predictions of tournament theory regarding prize spread and noise. A random subset of the 208 stores participates in two-stage elimination tournaments. Tournaments differ in the distribution of prize money across winners of the first and second rounds of the tournament. As predicted, we find that a more convex prize spread increases second-round performance at the expense of first-round performance, although the magnitude of these effects is small. Moreover, the treatment effect is larger for stores with more stable past performance.

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