Universiteit Maastricht

Covariation bias in women with a negative body evaluation : how is it expressed and can it be diminished?

Auteur(s): Alleva, J.M.; Martijn, A.C.; Jansen, A.T.M.

Jaar: 2016

Bron: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 50, 33-39.

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Women with a negative body evaluation display covariation bias: They overestimate the relation between their own body and negative social feedback. This study aimed to develop a more fine-grained understanding of this covariation bias and to determine whether it could be diminished. METHODS: Seventy women completed a computer task wherein three categories of stimuli - pictures of their own body, a control woman's body, and a neutral object - were followed by (nonverbal) negative social feedback or nothing. Participants' estimates of the relation between each stimulus category and negative social feedback were assessed throughout the task. RESULTS: Before starting the task, women with a more negative state body evaluation expected their body to be followed by more negative social feedback (demonstrating a priori covariation bias). During the task, when the relation between stimulus category and negative social feedback was random, women with a more negative trait and state body evaluation perceived at the present moment (online covariation bias) and retrospectively (a posteriori covariation bias) that their body was followed by more negative social feedback. When contingencies were manipulated so that women's own body was rarely followed by negative social feedback, covariation bias was temporarily diminished; this coincided with improvements in state body evaluation. LIMITATIONS: The task did not incorporate neutral or positive social feedback and focused only on undergraduate women. CONCLUSIONS: Covariation bias exists preexperimentally and occurs when situational information is ambiguous. It is possible to (temporarily) diminish covariation bias. This might be a technique for improving body evaluation.

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Relative income and life statisfaction of Turkish immigrants: The impact of a collectivistic culture

Auteur(s): Dumludag, D.; Gokdemir, O.; Vendrik, M.C.M.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: GSBE Research memorandum 024. Maastricht: GSBE.

Type: Rapport / Working paper

Samenvatting:
This study examines the effects of social comparison with a wide range of reference groups on the life satisfaction of Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands. For two sets of ethnic and life-domain reference groups, results are obtained that deviate from the findings of recent studies and that suggest the impact of the collectivistic subculture of the Turkish immigrants. Perceived importance of income comparison with Dutch natives is positively correlated to life satisfaction, supporting an interpretation of this comparison as a positive emancipatory stimulus in the pursuit of self-improvement of the Turkish immigrants. Perceived importance of income comparison with relatives in the Netherlands is positively correlated to life satisfaction as well, which can be interpreted in terms of an underlying feeling of connectedness with one’s relatives. On the other hand, Turkish immigrants who have a higher household income than relatives are significantly less satisfied with their life, suggesting the unattractiveness of deviating too much from one’s relatives. For other reference groups some interesting results are obtained as well.

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Great expectations: The relationship between future time perspective, learning from others, and employability

Auteur(s): Fröhlich, D.; Beausaert, S.A.J.; Segers, M.S.R.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Vocations and Learning, 8(2), 213-227.

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
Employees in countries with advanced industrial economies need to continuously develop their competences to sustain their employability – that is, to have a set of competences that enables them to maintain or find an adequate job. But how should efforts to enhance employability progress in the context of the demographic shift? Previous research suggests that employees’ perspective about their future working life may influence their motivation to engage in learning activities. The study reported and discussed here investigates how employees’ perceptions of the future as a time of opportunities and limitations affects their engagement in learning from others and, in turn, their employability. We tested our model empirically in two Austrian consultancies (n = 167). We find that focus on opportunities in the future explains engagement in learning from others and, subsequently, differences in employability. The informants’ perspectives about the future may be a helpful alternative to the measurement of chronological age, which is problematic from a conceptual point of view.

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Focal versus background goals in consumer financial decision-making Trading off financial returns for self-expression?

Auteur(s): Aspara, J.; Chakravarti, A.; Hoffmann, A.O.I.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: European Journal of Marketing, 49(7-8), 1114-1138.

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
Purpose - This study aims to examine the interplay between focal and background goals in consumer financial decision-making and identify conditions that lead individuals to trade-off financial returns for background goals. Design/methodology/approach - The current research reviews the relevant literature on consumer financial decision-making and goal systems theory to develop a set of hypotheses that is tested using three experiments. Findings - The experiments show that individuals who have been subtly primed with self-expressive background goals, or experienced progress toward the focal goal of financial returns, accept lower financial returns for the opportunity to invest in stocks that allow for increased self-expression. Further, while subtly primed background goals exert a non-normative influence on investment decisions, explicit cues about an investment's background goal-instrumentality create a backlash effect, and decrease individuals' willingness to trade-off financial returns. Research limitations/implications - Future research could confirm the robustness of the findings of the present research by using different priming tasks and alternative ways of making the background goal explicit to individuals. Practical implications - To achieve greater attraction among individual investors, it helps to frame a financial product or stock in communications materials in a way that sends subtle signals with which investors can identify. Such signals could include stressing the product/company's home country (addressing individuals' patriotism) or a particular product domain (addressing individual investors' desire for interesting/exciting current/future products). Originality/value - While previous research suggests that investment choices may be influenced by self-expressive motivations, to date, it remains unclear whether and when individual investors are actually willing to trade-off the focal goal of maximizing financial returns for the opportunity to satisfy alternative background goals.

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Self-employment: does parental cultural diversity matter?

Auteur(s): Marino, M.; Parrotta, P.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Applied Economics Letters, 22(14), 1108-1115.

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
We find evidence that parents with different cultural background favour self-employment experiences of their children. The effect of parental cultural diversity turns out to be stronger for children with no siblings or having at least a parent with universitary degree.

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Should fines depend on income? A questionnaire study on values and institutions

Auteur(s): Bosmans, K.G.M.; Esposito, L.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 171(2), .

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
How do we make sense of the cross-country heterogeneity in value judgments emerging from international surveys? Our study suggests that the answer needs to go beyond the adaptation of values to existing institutions and should tap into deeper beliefs. In our case, Finnish respondents do support their country's system of income-dependent fines more strongly than respondents in countries using a fixed fine system. However, they also hold different beliefs on the relationship between income and well-being and hence on the burdens imposed by fining offenders at different income levels. A further illustration is provided in the context of income taxation.

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Commitment in alternating offers bargaining

Auteur(s): Miettinen, T.; Perea ý Monsuwé, A.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Mathematical Social Sciences, 76, 12-18.

Type: Artikel

Samenvatting:
We extend the Stahl-Rubinstein alternating-offer bargaining procedure to allow players to simultaneously and visibly commit to some share of the pie prior to, and for the duration of, each bargaining round. If commitment costs are small but increasing in the committed share, then the unique subgame perfect equilibrium outcome exhibits a second mover advantage. In particular, as the horizon approaches infinity, and commitment costs approach zero, the unique bargaining outcome corresponds to the reversed Rubinstein outcome (delta(1 + delta), 1/(1 + delta)), where 3 is the common discount factor.

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Communication and reasoning on clinical teaching teams : the genres that shape care and education

Auteur(s): Goldszmidt, M.A.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: : . Prom./coprom.: Dornan, T.; Lingard, L.; Merriënboer, J.J.G. van; Bordage, G.

Type: Proefschrift

Old and out? : age, employability, and the role of learning

Auteur(s): Fröhlich, D.

Jaar: 2015

Bron: Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht. Prom./coprom.: Segers, M.S.R.; Beausaert, S.A.J.

Type: Proefschrift